Ai??AYrenmeye Liderlik Etmek
Ai??AYrenme AYeklimiz parmak izimiz kadar farklAi??lAi??k gAi??sterebilir. BazAi?? Ai??AYrenciler Ai??AYrenme sA?recinde bir baAYkasAi??nAi??n yardAi??m ve desteAYine daha Ai??ok ihtiyaAi?? duyarken, bazAi??larAi?? bu desteAYe ihtiyaAi?? duymayabilirler.
Ai??AYrenme ile ilgili araAYtAi??rmalarAi?? okurken bireysel farklAi??lAi??klarAi??n da olabileceAYini dikkate almalAi?? ve genellemelerden kaAi??Ai??nmalAi??yAi??z. Ev Ai??devleri, Ai??dA?ller, pekiAYtireAi??ler ai???yararlAi??dAi??rai??? ya da ai???zararlAi??dAi??rai??? gibi genellemeler her bir Ai??AYrenci iAi??in geAi??erli olmayabilir. Ai??AYrencinin yaAYAi??, Ai??devin ve pekiAYtirecin tA?rA?, verilme biAi??imi, Ai??AYrencilerin bunlarAi?? nasAi??l algAi??ladAi??AYAi??, dersin Ai??zellikleri, Ai??AYrenme stilleri, Ai??zyeterlik algAi??sAi??, Ai??z dA?zenleme becerisi ve Ai??AYrencinin iAi??inde yaAYadAi??AYAi?? kA?ltA?r gibi deAYiAYkenler araAYtAi??rma sonuAi??larAi??nAi?? deAYiAYtirebilir.
Ai??rneAYin, 110 mevcutlu aAi??Ai??k sAi??nAi??f AYeklinde dA?zenlenmiAY olan bir okulda Ai??AYrenim gAi??ren bir Ai??AYrenci ai???okumaai??? dersinde baAYarAi??lAi?? iken ai???matematikai??? dersinde baAYarAi??sAi??zdAi??r. Ai??AYretmenler, okuma dersinde neler yaptAi??klarAi??nAi?? Ai??AYrencinin babasAi??na AYAi??yle aAi??Ai??klarlar:
ai???Biz hiAi??bir Ai??AYrenciye mA?dahale etmiyoruz. Okuma dersinde her Ai??AYrenci kendine ait dosyasAi??ndan kitabAi??nAi?? alAi??r ve yerine geAi??ip, okumaya baAYlar. Okuma esnasAi??nda sorusu olan Ai??AYrenci parmak kaldAi??rAi??p sorusunu sorabiliyor. OAYlunuz da en iyi okuyucularAi??mAi??zdan.ai???
Ai??AYretmenler matematik dersinde de okuma dersindekine benzer bir yAi??ntem uyguluyorlar. Ancak matematik dersinde bu uygulama iAYe yaramAi??yor ve Ai??AYrenci matematikte, okuma dersinde olduAYu kadar baAYarAi??lAi?? deAYil. Peki neden?
Lider yaklaAYAi??mAi??nAi?? Ai??AYrenenin Ai??zellikleri belirler
YukarAi??da Blanchardai??i??Ai??n anlattAi??AYAi?? Ai??rneAYe, Blanchardai??i??Ai??n ai???Ai??ok Boyutlu Liderlik Modeliai??? ile cevap arayalAi??m.
Ken Blanchard ve Paul Hersey tarafAi??ndan Ohio A?niversitesiai??i??nde geliAYtirilen Ai??ok Boyutlu Liderlik modeline gAi??re, sadece otoriter ve demokratik olmak A?zere iki liderlik yaklaAYAi??mAi?? yoktur. Ai??zleyenlerin Ai??zelliklerine gAi??re liderlik yaklaAYAi??mAi?? deAYiAYebilir.
- Yetkilendirici (Delege edici),
- Destekleyici,
- KoAi??luk edici,
- Direktif verici (talimat verici) Ai??olmak A?zere dAi??rt liderlik yaklaAYAi??mAi?? vardAi??r.
EAYer Ai??alAi??AYanlar yA?ksek yeterlik ve yA?ksek baAYlAi??lAi??k dA?zeyindeler ise, yetkilendirici liderlik yaklaAYAi??mAi??nAi?? benimsemek gerekir. Bu durumda direksiyon Ai??AYrencinin elindedir. Ai??AYretmen, Ai??AYrencinin kullandAi??AYAi?? araAi??ta yolcu olarak bulunabilir.
YukarAi??da verilen Ai??rnekte Ai??AYrenci okuma dersinde Ai??ok baAYarAi??lAi??, hazAi??rbulunuAYluk dA?zeyi yA?ksek ve bu nedenle de Ai??AYretmenlerin uyguladAi??AYAi?? yetkilendirici liderlik yaklaAYAi??mAi?? iAYe yarAi??yor. Ai??AYrenci, Ai??AYretmenin mA?dahalesi ve yAi??nlendirmesi olmadan baAYarAi??lAi?? olabiliyor. Bu derste Ai??AYrenci Ai??AYretmenin hiAi??bir AYey yapmasAi??na gerek kalmadan, Ai??AYrenme hedeflerini kendisi belirleyebiliyor, kendini motive edebiliyor, Ai??evresini dA?zenleyebiliyor ve Ai??AYrenme stratejisi geliAYtirebiliyor. Bu Ai??zelliklere sahip olan Ai??AYrencilerin Ai??z-dA?zenleme becerileri yA?ksek olur. Ai??ok az desteAYe ihtiyaAi?? duyarlar. Bu Ai??zelliklere sahip Ai??AYrencilerin baAYarAi??lAi?? olmalarAi??nAi?? saAYlamak iAi??in doAYru ortamAi?? hazAi??rlamak yeterli olur.
BaAYarAi??sAi??zlAi??AYAi?? Ai??AYrenmiAY, kaygAi??lAi?? Ai??AYrenciler iAi??in neler yapAi??labilir?
EAYer Ai??AYrencinin motivasyonu iyi ama baAYarAi?? ile ilgili deneyimi kAi??sAi??tlAi?? ise ai???direktif verici liderlik modeliai??? gerekebilir. Ai??Ai??AYretmen, amaAi??larAi?? ve Ai??AYrencinin gAi??revlerini belirler, Ai??AYrenciye neyi, ne zaman ve nerede yapacaAYAi??nAi?? aAi??Ai??klar. SA?reAi?? Ai??AYrencinin yeterlik dA?zeyi yA?kselinceye kadar devam eder. Ai??AYretmen bir nevi yavrularAi??na uAi??mayAi?? Ai??AYreten kartal gibidir. AmaAi?? yavrularAi??n bir an Ai??nce uAi??mayAi?? Ai??AYrenip, kendi baAYlarAi??na uAi??abilmelerini saAYlamaktAi??r.
BaAYarAi??sAi??z deneyimleri nedeniyle hayal kAi??rAi??klAi??AYAi??na uAYramAi??AY Ai??AYrenciye ai???KoAi??luk Ediciai???, yetenekli ama kaygAi??lAi?? bir Ai??AYrenci iAi??in ise, ai???Destekleyici Liderlikai??? yaklaAYAi??mAi??nAi?? benimsemek gerekir.
BaAYarAi??sAi??z deneyimleri nedeniyle hayal kAi??rAi??klAi??AYAi??na uAYramAi??AY ve kaygAi??lAi?? Ai??AYrenciler daha Ai??ok duygusal desteAYe ihtiyaAi??larAi?? duyarlar. BaAYarabilecekleri gAi??revlerden baAYlayarak Ai??AYrencilerin Ai??nce Ai??zyeterlik algAi??larAi?? gA?Ai??lendirilmeli ve kendi yeteneklerinin farkAi??na varmalarAi?? saAYlanmalAi??dAi??r. BaAYarAi??sAi??zlAi??klar da Ai??AYreticidir. Ancak bir derste hiAi?? baAYarAi?? yaAYamadan arka arkaya yaAYanAi??lan baAYarAi??sAi??zlAi??klar Ai??zyeterlik algAi??sAi??nAi?? dA?AYA?rerek, motivasyonu azaltabilir. Bu nedenle ilke, ai???EAYer Ai??AYrenci bir derste hiAi?? baAYarAi?? duygusu yaAYamamAi??AYsa, o derste baAYarAi??sAi??zlAi??k da yaAYatmamamAi??z gerekirai??? olmadAi??r.
Ai??AYrencinin matematik dersindeki hazAi??rbulunuAYluk, Ai??zyeterlik dA?zeyi ve motivasyonu yetersizse, Ai??AYrenciye bir yol haritasAi?? vermek, koAi??luk edici bir liderlik yaklaAYAi??mAi??nda bulunmak daha doAYru olur.
Ai??deal olan Ai??AYrencilerin iAi??sel motivasyonlarAi??nAi??n yA?ksek olmasAi??dAi??r. Ancak Ai??AYretmenler olarak dAi??AYsal motivasyon (onaylama, iyi notlar, Ai??dA?ller vs.) gAi??z ardAi?? edebileceAYimiz bir durum deAYil. Ai??zellikle Ai??AYrenmenin baAYAi??nda, hazAi??rbulunuAYluk dA?zeyi dA?AYA?k Ai??AYrenciler, verilecek Ai??dA?llerle bir sA?re (Ai??AYrenme onlar iAi??in bir amaAi?? oluncaya kadar) dAi??AYtan motive edilebilirler. Bu durum duran bir otomobili biraz iterek, Ai??nce Ai??alAi??AYmasAi??nAi??, sonra hareket etmesini ve hAi??zlanmasAi??nAi?? saAYlamaya benzetilebilir.
YazAi??nAi??n tamamAi?? iAi??in aAYaAYAi??daki linke tAi??klayAi??nAi??z.

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